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Shelter Planning and Design

Need for protection
In spate of treaties and agreements for the limitation of atomic warfare, stocks of nuclear weapons are constantly expanding and the number of nations having such weapons at their disposal is increasing.

These means of mass destruction represent a constant threat to mankind It Is, however, not only the milltary-political threat which makes many people feel a need for pro- tection, but also the danger of an atom bomb explosion as a result of accident, error, breakdown or sabotage, and also the consequences of everyday possibilities Of mishap or disaster in the operation of plants such as petrochemical Installations and the like.

Consideration Of safety predominantly Involve protection of persons, but a need exists for the protection of equipment of government and military installations, Industry, telecommunications centres, nuclear power stations, works of art and objects of value.

Extent of protection
In order to achieve reasonable pro- tection, the resultant effects of the very wide range of weapons that exist must be eliminated or reduced In the case of atomic explosions, these are pressure, suction, fission, radioactive fall-out and nuclear and thermal radiation, and in the case of chemical and biological weapons, chemical warfare agents, bacteria and gases. Finally, In the case of other occurrences, protection must be generally provided against heat, water, debris, etc.

Shelter design and equipment
A shelter Is nothing other than a place of refuge which in times of danger must be equipped with the necessary stocks of foodstuffs, water, sanitary materials, resting places, etc and be ready for occupation.

It Is obvious that a shelter located below the surface of the ground Is considerably less exposed than a shelter above the ground. The rein- forced concrete shell can therefore be less thick. Each shelter should have an entrance which can be closed by means of doors built of concrete and likewise reinforced, and an emergency exit In case the entrance should become unusable.

Shelters for people require ventilation equipment to ensure physiologically adequate conditions even during long-term occupation. The oxygen necessary for life must therefore be supplied and life-inhibiting substances such as carbon dioxide, humidity etc extracted and conducted away The corresponding air Inlets and outlets must be protected by means of explosion-proof valves so that no harmful external Influences can penetrate into the shelter Maintaining an overpressure will also prevent the Inflow of con- taminated air.

Shelter equipment

Types of shelter
Shelters in dwelling houses, com mercial premises, office and administration buildings, hotels and the like are referred to as private shelters. Their purpose is to provide adequate protection in case of need to persons occupying these buildings. This pamphlet primarily deals with this kind of shelter.

Public shelters are larger installations which in town areas, for example, can serve as a place protection for the population or as a base for lifesaving and medical high organizations. Our know-how and our consultants are available for the design and construction of such installatlons, which have more comprehenslve technical equipment.

The quality of our products
We place great value on the realiability of our Installations and their component parts, to ensure that the best possible protection is provided in case of need.

We achieve this by means of equipment with which we are constantly testing our appliances. It is also possible to simulate explosions and shocks and to allow for their effects in the design of our components. Our production Is also continuously inspected by the Swliss authorities. All this ensures the consistently standard of quality of the products we market for purposes of protection.

Shelter closures
The purpose of shelter closures is effectively to protect the shelter entrances and emergency escapes against air blasts, radiation, dust, splinters, gas and thermal effects.

Armored doors (for the entrances) and armored covers (for the emergency escapes) offer adequate protection against blast. Doors which communicate directly with the outside must be furnished with a self-releasing device so that In case of need they can be opened from inside in spite of any obstruction by debris. Pressure-doors are used Inside civilian shelters, that is to say, everywhere where partitions are required which must be gas tight but not greatly exposed to pressure. All closures are delivered ready for positioning, they must be concreted In whale closed. The reinforced door frame must be enclosed with shuttering and filled with concrete

Shelter ventilation
The ventilation equipment consists of a fan with a handcraft and electric motor. The gas filter contains a mechanical filter element and an active carbon filter element which retains radioactive fall-out and chemlcal warfare agents. The air is drawn in through an explosion-proof relief valve with prefllter and expelled by thy fan - In case of need through the gas filter using flexible couplings. The used air escapes Into the atmosphere through an exploslon-proof relief pressure valve.

Peacetime use of shelter
Shelters are not ''lost spacers, since In peace-time they can be used as a cellar (wine cellar), as a work-room or play-room and also for storing survlval supplies (water, food, books, radio).

Types of installations
We know the demands on protection equipment. Our specialists plan the suitable installation for your requirements Please call for our service.